Bladder training for urinary incontinence in adults

Wallace, SA, Roe, Brenda, Williams, K and Palmer, M (2004) Bladder training for urinary incontinence in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1. pp. 1-131. DOI https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001308.pub2

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence is a common and distressing problem. Bladder training aims to increase the interval between voids and is widely used for the treatment of urinary incontinence. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of bladder training for the treatment of urinary incontinence. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group trials register (January 2003). The reference lists of relevant articles were searched, and trialists contacted for details of other trials. Date of the most recent search: January 2003. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of bladder training for the treatment of any type of urinary incontinence. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers assessed trial quality and independently extracted data. Five primary outcomes were prespecified: participant's perception of cure of urinary incontinence; participant's perception of improvement of urinary incontinence; number of incontinent episodes; number of micturitions; and quality of life. Adverse events were also noted. Three hypotheses were tested: bladder training is better than no bladder training; bladder training is better than other treatments; and combining bladder training with another treatment is better than that other treatment alone. MAIN RESULTS: We assessed 73 reports of 36 potentially relevant trials; 28 reports of ten trials were eligible for inclusion with a total of 1366, predominantly female, participants. Not all participants' with overactive bladder, in five trials had urinary incontinence. Data from five trials with 467 participants, all female, are therefore included in the review. The quality of trials was variable. Few data describing long term follow up are available.Is bladder training better than no bladder training? Data were available for 149 women from two trials comparing bladder training with no bladder training. These described only a limited number of prespecified outcomes, which varied across the two trials. Point estimates of effect favoured bladder training however confidence intervals were wide and no statistically significant differences were found for primary outcome variables.Is bladder training better than other treatments? Only two trials including 125 women compared bladder training with drugs: one with oxybutynin and one with imipramine plus flavoxate. In the former trial the only outcomes demonstrating a statistically significant difference were participant's perception of cure at six months (RR 1.69; 95% CI 1.21 to 2.34) and adverse events (RR 0.03; 95% CI 0.00 to 0.44), both favouring bladder training. In the latter trial participant's perception of cure immediately after treatment just achieved statistical significance (RR 1.50; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.21) favouring bladder training, and this difference was maintained at approximately two months post treatment. One comparison of bladder training with pelvic floor muscle training plus biofeedback included 132 women: none of the differences in the primary outcomes achieved statistical significance.Is combining bladder training with another treatment better than that other treatment alone? One trial compared pelvic floor muscle training plus biofeedback supplemented with bladder training versus pelvic floor muscle training plus biofeedback alone and included 125 women. Of the primary outcomes both participants' perception of improvement and quality of life, both immediately after treatment, achieved statistical significance, favouring the bladder training combined with pelvic floor muscle training and biofeedback group (perception of improvement: RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.39; quality of life: MD -47.20; 95% CI -87.03 to -7.37), this was not sustained at three months. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: The limited evidence available suggests that bladder training may be helpful for the treatment of urinary incontinence, but this conclusion can only be tentative as the trials were of variable quality and of small size with wide confidence intervals around the point estimates of effect. There was also not enough evidence to determine w evidence to determine whether bladder training was useful as a supplement to another therapy. Definitive research has yet to be conducted: more research is required.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Art. No. CD001308
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RT Nursing
Divisions: Nursing and Midwifery
Date Deposited: 01 Oct 2012 14:41
URI: http://repository.edgehill.ac.uk/id/eprint/4232

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