The effect of perceived control reinforcement on male amateur penalty shootout performance

Ellison, Paul, Tyldesley, Bradley, Carnegie, Evelyn and Marchant, David (2016) The effect of perceived control reinforcement on male amateur penalty shootout performance. British Psychological Society: Division of Sport & Exercise Science:, 12-13th December 2016, Cardiff.

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Objectives: Anxiety is the most significant contributory factor to performance failure in penalty shootouts. The extent to which one believes they can control the outcome of an event may have a role to play in performance breakdown in pressurised circumstances. The present work investigated whether the introduction of a perceived control reinforcement programme would influence subsequent performance of penalty takers. Design: Penalty practice was completed in two conditions; Perceived Control (PC) vs Normal Practice (NP) using a between-participants experimental design. Methods: Following a baseline test consisting of 10 penalties each, twenty male amateur footballers (26±1.3 yrs.) were equally assigned to either a PC (intervention) (n=10) or NP (control) (n-10) group based on performance. Penalty training was conducted over a four week acquisition period, immediately after a 90 minute weekly football training session, and a retention test was conducted one week later under pressure conditions. Results: A 2 (Group) x 4 (Trial) RM ANOVA indicated main effect for Group (F(1, 18) =6.07, p = 0.024, p2 = 0.25). Bonferroni post hoc tests showed the NP performed significantly (p < 0.05) better in acquisition sessions: 1 and 3, 1 and 4, 2 and 3 and 2 and 4. The PC group performed statistically better (M=19 ±9.05) than the NP (M=4 ±13.76) in the final retention test: t(18) =2., p = 0.049. (82% v 63% success). Conclusion: Practice using PC reinforcement positively affected penalty performance under pressure. Perceived control appears to be a critical and trainable characteristic that warrants further investigation.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Poster)
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sports Science
Date Deposited: 16 Dec 2016 15:48

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